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AlNiCo Magnets

Alnico is an acronym referring to a family of iron alloys which in addition to iron are composed primarily of aluminium (Al), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co),which owns a high coercivity (resistance to loss of magnetism) and belongs to permanent magnets.
 
The composition of alnico alloys is typically 8–12% Al, 15–26% Ni, 5–24% Co, up to 6% Cu, up to 1% Ti, and the balance is Fe.

Some brands of alnico are isotropic and can be efficiently magnetized in any direction. Other types, such as alnico 5 and alnico 8, are anisotropic, with each having a preferred direction of magnetization. Anisotropic alloys generally have greater magnetic capacity in a preferred orientation than isotropic types. Alnico can produce a strong magnetic flux in closed magnetic circuit, but has relatively small resistance against demagnetization.

Alnico alloys have some of the highest Curie temperatures of any magnetic material, around 800 °C (1,470 °F). They are the only magnets that have useful magnetism even when heated red-hot. Unlike ceramic magnets, Alnico magnets are electrically conductive,

Alnico magnets are produced by casting or sintering processes.
Anisotropic alnico magnets are oriented by heating above a critical temperature, and cooling in the presence of a magnetic field. Both isotropic and anisotropic alnico require proper heat treatment to develop optimum magnetic properties. After the heat treatment alnico becomes a composite material.
Unlike NdFeB magnets, AlNiCo magnets usually don’t need any coating.

Applications:

Alnico magnets are widely used in industrial and consumer applications where strong permanent magnets are needed like  electric motors, electric guitar pickups, microphones, reed switches, sensors, loudspeakers, traveling-wave tubes, and cow magnets. In many applications they are being replaced by rare earth magnets, whose stronger fields (Br) and larger energy products (BHmax) allow smaller size magnets to be used for a given application.

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